Cities as study proxies for climate change Cities can serve as useful proxies to study and predict the effects of climate change, according to a North Carolina State University research review that tracks urbanization's effects on plant and insect species.
Scientists lack vital knowledge on rapid Arctic climate change Arctic climate change research relies on field measurements and samples that are too scarce, and patchy at best, according to a comprehensive review study from Lund University in Sweden. The researchers looked at thousands of scientific studies, and found
Splitting water: Nanoscale imaging yields key insights In the quest to realize artificial photosynthesis to convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into fuel -- just as plants do -- researchers need to not only identify materials to efficiently perform photoelectrochemical water splitting, but also to und
What psychological science can offer to reducing climate change The consequences of climate change are immense, and believed by many experts to be largely irreversible (and exponential), causing threats coming from heat waves, flooding, declines in agriculture, and decreasing biodiversity, to name a few. Given that cl
A scientist's final paper looks toward earth's future climate A NASA scientist's final scientific paper, published posthumously this month, reveals new insights into one of the most complex challenges of Earth's climate: understanding and predicting future atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases and the role of the o
Thawing permafrost microbiomes fuel climate change A University of Queensland-led international study could lead to more accurate predictions or the rate of global warming from greenhouse gas emissions produced by thawing permafrost in the next 100 years.The study of the microorganisms involved in permafr
How gold nanoparticles could improve solar energy storage Star-shaped gold nanoparticles, coated with a semiconductor, can produce hydrogen from water over four times more efficiently than other methods - opening the door to improved storage of solar energy and other advances that could boost renewable energy us
University of Montana ecology professor helps map climate corridors The corridors of land vital for many wildlife species in the face of climate change often are unprotected. Now, a recently published study from a University of Montana ecology professor and other researchers has tracked these shifting North American habit
Tiny fern holds big environmental promise A tiny fern -- with each leaf the size of a gnat -- may provide global impact for sinking atmospheric carbon dioxide, fixing nitrogen in agriculture and shooing pesky insects from crops. The fern's full genome has been sequenced by a Cornell University an
Game changing game changes Using stochastic games to analyze evolution of cooperation, leads to a surprising discovery. The tragedy of the commons is resolved if the environment deteriorates in response to defection. The new approach offers invaluable insight into how cooperation p
Stormwater ponds not a major source of greenhouse gas emissions Stormwater retention ponds, a ubiquitous feature in urban landscapes, are not a significant source of climate-warming nitrous oxide emissions, a new Duke-led study finds. Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming and dest
Charcoal: Major missing piece in the global carbon cycle Most of the carbon resulting from wildfires and fossil fuel combustion is rapidly released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now shown that the leftover residue, so-called black carbon, can age for millenn
Expansion of agricultural land reduces CO2 absorption Plants absorb some of the carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels. But increasing deforestation and other changes in land use will reduce the CO2 absorption capacity of these areas in the future. This is what a study by c
What does global climate have to do with erosion rates? Geoscientists have been intrigued by a potential link between erosion rates at the Earth's surface and changes in global climate. A new study now calls into question this link. A team of researchers re-examined 30 locations with reported accelerated erosi
In a warming world, could air conditioning make things worse? As climate change continues to push summer temperatures ever higher, the increased use of air conditioning in buildings could add to the problems of a warming world by further degrading air quality and compounding the toll of air pollution on human health
Climate change and health: A special issue in PLOS Medicine This week, we see the first papers in PLOS Medicine's Special Issue on Climate Change and Health being published, advised by Guest Editors Jonathan Patz of the Global Health Institute at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the John P. Holton Chair in
How mangroves help keep the planet cool In a new global framework, scientists have developed a more accurate assessment of how mangroves store carbon in their soil. The researchers found that previous studies have underestimated the blue carbon levels in mangroves by up to 50 percent in some re
Climate change is making night-shining clouds more visible Increased water vapor in Earth's atmosphere due to human activities is making shimmering high-altitude clouds more visible, a new study finds. The results suggest these strange but increasingly common clouds seen only on summer nights are an indicator of
Carbon dioxide-to-methanol process improved by catalyst Dramatic improvements have been made to the process of converting carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, to methanol, a fuel and building block for a wide range of everyday materials, according to Penn State researchers.
Smartphones used to track migrations caused by climate change Spanish researchers have developed a system that tracks human displacement caused by climate change using the tracks of mobile phones. With this model, which was tested during a severe drought in Colombia in 2014, it was determined that the portion of the
Path to zero emissions starts out easy, but gets steep Carbon dioxide emissions from human activities must approach zero within several decades to avoid risking grave damage from the effects of climate change. This will require creativity and innovation, because some types of industrial sources of atmospheri
Reducing CO2 with common elements and sunlight An international collaborative research group including Tokyo Institute of Technology, Universite PARIS DIDEROT and CNRS has discovered that CO2 is selectively reducedto CO when a photocatalyst composed of an organic semiconductor material and an iron com
UK urban forest can store as much carbon as tropical rainforests Pockets of urban forest can contain as much carbon as tropical rainforests, according to new research led by UCL. Protecting and planting urban forests is central to building liveable and sustainable cities in a future where global populations are set to
Envisioning a future where all the trees in Europe disappear Global climate change is already affecting the planet, as demonstrated by the shrinking polar ice cap, melting glaciers and cities in the grips of longer, more intense heat waves. Now a team of researchers has conducted a radical thought experiment on how
Innovative autonomous system for identifying schools of fish The University of Haifa (Israel) and two teams from the IMDEA Networks Institute have developed an innovative autonomous system, SYMBIOSIS, to monitor real-time schools of fish. This system, which combines optical and acoustic technologies, will be enviro
Heated dilemmas Short-term management responses to climate change-mediated disasters can be maladaptive in the long-term.
Machine learning may be a game-changer for climate prediction New research from Columbia Engineering Professor Pierre Gentine demonstrates that machine-learning techniques can be used to accurately represent clouds and their atmospheric heating and moistening, and better represent clouds in coarse resolution climate
Light pollution a reason for insect decline Climate change, pesticides and land use changes alone cannot fully explain the decline in insect populations in Germany. Scientists from the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) have now discovered that regions that have expe
Responses of the tropical atmospheric circulation to climate change An international team describes the climate change-induced responses of the tropical atmospheric circulation and their impacts on the hydrological cycle. It also depicts the theoretically predicted changes and diagnose physical mechanisms for observationa
New method makes weather forecasts right as rain Meteorologists have known for some time that rainfall forecasts have flaws, as failure to take into account factors such as evaporation can affect their accuracy. Now, researchers from the University of Missouri have developed a system that improves the p
Climate change has fish moving faster than regulations can keep up The world's system for allocating fish stocks is being outpaced by the movement of fish species in response to climate change, according to a study undertaken by an international team of marine ecologists, fisheries and social scientists, and lawyers.
When the river runs high A massive world-wide study of dry riverbeds has found they're contributing more carbon emissions than previously thought, and this could help scientists better understand how to fight climate change.
Antarctica ramps up sea level rise Ice losses from Antarctica have increased global sea levels by 7.6 mm since 1992, with two fifths of this rise (3.0 mm) coming in the last five years alone. The findings are from a major climate assessment known as the Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-compari
More of the Chinese population will be exposed to heat waves One of the major concerns in climate change studies is how the thermal conditions for the living environment of human beings will change in the future. Scientists found that a general increase in effective temperature in the future leads to a large increa
Carbon dioxide reduces belly fat The first randomized, controlled trial testing carbon dioxide gas injections (carboxytherapy) to reduce belly fat found the new technique eliminates fat around the stomach. However, the changes were modest and did not result in long-term fat reduction.
Salt Lake's light rail trains are air quality sleuths The TRAX project is the only known transit-based mobile air quality network in North America. Some results are unsurprising, such as spikes of carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, byproducts of gasoline combustion, at street intersections. But the sensors
World's most efficient production of succinate from carbon dioxide Succinate is widely used as a raw ingredient for petrochemicals, and there is high demand for a way of producing succinate that is renewable and environmentally benign. A Japanese researcher has discovered that succinate production levels increase when cy
More detailed data on thermal conditions of Arctic ground Understanding the thermal conditions of the ground in the Arctic is of utmost importance in order to assess the effects of climate change on the occurrence of permafrost, on the ecosystems and societies of the Arctic, and the global climate system.
Economic models significantly underestimate climate change risks Policymakers are being misinformed by the results of economic models that underestimate the future risks of climate change impacts, according to a new journal paper by authors in the United States and the United Kingdom, which is published June 4, 2018.
New study estimates the carbon footprints of 13,000 cities Many see cities as the new front lines of the climate change fight. Identifying the mayors and city councils in cities with the biggest carbon footprints, and the most power to make big changes, could mobilize a wave of reinforcements.
Massive analysis reveals ways to make food earth-friendly again A novel and potentially unrivalled meta-analysis of global food production cycles and their environmental impacts around the world may serve as a critical resource for policymakers, food producers and consumers alike, helping reveal data-supported opportu
Magic in metal could help put excess carbon dioxide to good use A University of Delaware researcher has identified a kind of magic in a metal that may be just what the doctor ordered for Planet Earth. He says the colorful metal, known as bismuth, could help reduce rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and pro
Climate change forced zombie ant fungi to adapt Zombie ants clamp on to aerial vegetation and hang for months spewing the spores of their parasitic fungi, but researchers noticed that they do not always clamp on to the same part of the plant. Now the researchers know that the choice of leaves or twigs
China floods to hit US economy: Climate effects through trade chains Fluvial floods will increase due to human-made climate change, in particular in China. This might raise direct and indirect economic losses along the global supply and trade chains. The US is susceptible to indirect climate-related economic losses due to
Limiting global warming could avoid millions of dengue fever cases Limiting global warming to 1.5°C could avoid around 3.3 million cases of dengue fever per year in Latin America and the Caribbean alone -- according to new research from the University of East Anglia (UEA).A new report published today in the Proceedi
Why bioelectrodes for energy conversion are not stable Researchers at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum have discovered why bioelectrodes containing the photosynthesis protein complex photosystem I are not stable in the long term. Such electrodes could be useful for converting light energy into chemical energy
Some like it hot! Ecologists have no doubt that climate change will affect the earth's animals and plants. But how exactly? This is often hard to predict. There are already indications that some species are shifting their distribution range. But it is much less clear how i
Earth's climate to increase by 4 degrees by 2084 A new study shows the Earth's climate would increase by 4 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels, before the end of 21st century. The study also projects precipitation changes in association with a 4 degrees Celsius global warming above the pr
Floridians could face far more frequent, intense heatwaves By the late 21st century, if atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations reach worst-case projections, Floridians could experience summer heatwaves three times more frequently, and each heatwave could last six times longer and be much hotter than at present
Technique doubles conversion of CO2 to plastic component Fossil fuels have long been the precursor to plastic, but new research has detailed a technique for doubling the amount of carbon dioxide that gets converted to ethylene -- an essential component of the world's most common plastic.
How Australia got planted A new study has uncovered when and why the native vegetation that today dominates much of Australia first expanded across the continent. The research should help researchers better predict the likely impact of climate change and rising carbon dioxide leve
Climate change broadens threat of emerald ash borer More Canadian cities will experience damage from the emerald ash borer than previously thought. As a result of climate change and fewer days of extreme cold, the beetle may eat its way further north than originally estimated.
A classifier of frog calls for fighting against climate change The sounds of amphibians are altered by the increase in ambient temperature, a phenomenon that, in addition to interfering with reproductive behaviour, serves as an indicator of global warming. Researchers at the University of Seville have resorted to art
The survival of sea birds affected by ocean cycles In a general context of climate change, researchers at the Centre d'écologie fonctionnelle et évolutive (CNRS/Université de Montpellier/Université Paul Valery/EPHE-PSL) and their international partners revealed the impact of ocean cycl
Climate change impacts fragile river ecosystems Research undertaken in South Africa's Kruger National Park (KNP) has shown that some of the world's most sensitive and valuable riverine habitats are being destroyed due to an increasing frequency of cyclone-driven extreme floods.
Satellite study finds major shifts in global freshwater A new global, satellite-based study of Earth's freshwater found that Earth's wet areas are getting wetter, while dry areas are getting drier. The data suggest this pattern is due to many factors, including human water management practices, human-caused cl
Climate change should help Midwest corn production through 2050 Contrary to previous analyses, research published by Michigan State University shows that projected changes in temperature and humidity will not lead to greater water use in corn. This means that while changes in temperatures and humidity trend as they ha
Antarctic seals can help predict ice sheet melt Two species of seal found in Antarctic seas are helping scientists collect data about the temperature and salinity of waters around vulnerable ice sheets in West Antarctica. Understanding more about how this water gets towards the ice shelves by measuring
How far to go for satellite cloud image forecasting into operation Simulated satellite cloud images not only have the visualization of cloud imagery, but also can reflect more information about the model. Using the atmospheric radiation transfer model and high-resolution numerical weather forecast results, researchers fr
Cassava breeding hasn't improved photosynthesis or yield potential University of Illinois researchers analyzed four African cultivars to find out how breeding has impacted photosynthesis -- the process that transforms light energy and carbon dioxide into yield. They found that unimproved landraces of cassava - cultivars
Big mamma fish give proportionally bigger reproductive outputs Even accounting for their proportionate size, bigger female fish produce many more offspring than smaller fish, a new study reveals. The results hold implications for fisheries managers, since climate change is expected to reduce the size of fish (and thu